DENTAL STUDENTS’ PERSPECTIVES ON THE IMPLEMENTATION AND EFFECTIVENESS OF ONLINE LEARNING DUE TO COVID-19 PANDEMIC: A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN BULGARIA

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.20535/2410-8286.231011

Abstract

Purpose. As dental education was significantly influenced by the novel coronavirus pandemic, this study aims to investigate pre-clinical dental students’ perspectives on the implementation of remote education and school closure due to COVID-19 pandemic, self-reported effectiveness of on-line learning as well as their educational and personal experiences. Method. A self-administered questionnaire was posted online to a total of 258 out of 516 second and third-year preclinical dental students in Dec 2020/Jan 2021 at Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University-Sofia, Bulgaria. Survey items focused on 3 general domains: student attitude, assessment, and concerns regarding online learning; student current knowledge and perceptions of COVID-19 pandemic and student opinion of pandemic psychological impact on public health, personal experiences and intention for vaccination. Findings. One-hundred and sixty-nine students responded to the survey (response rate 65.5%). Most of them (70.4%) approved suspension of face-to-face classes due to the COVID-19 crisis. Eighty percent expressed dissatisfaction toward online teaching sessions and agreed that this will have negative effects on their education. Fifty-eight percent did not find remote education more stressful than in-person training. More concerns were expressed about financial issues than mental health problems. Intention for getting vaccinated was expressed by 53.3% and 40.8% thought that the vaccine would cause many side health effects. Implications for research and practice. Within the limitations of the study, identified gaps in online education could help increase effectiveness of learning environment and create opportunity to enhance education for the future. Dental student thoughts about COVID-19 vaccinations provide valuable information to administrators, public health professionals and policy makers to improve efforts towards preserving, protecting, and promoting public health.

Author Biographies

Nadya Avramova, Madical University

Nadya Avramova is a PhD Assistant Professor at the Department of Dental Public Health, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University – Sofia, Bulgaria. Master’s Degree in Dental Medicine from Sofia Medical University, Master’s Degree in Healthcare management from Sofia Medical University, Master’s Degree in Psychology from St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria and PhD in Dental Medicine from Medical University – Sofia, Bulgaria. Her academic interests focus on organization of healthcare systems, motivation and behavioral sciences, dental education and practice, medical psychology.  

Ivanka Mihaylova , Medical University

Ivanka Mihaylova is a PhD Assistant Professor at the Department of Dental Public Health, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University – Sofia, Bulgaria. Master’s Degree in Dental Medicine from Sofia Medical University, Master’s Degree in Psychology from St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria and PhD in Dental Medicine from Medical University – Sofia, Bulgaria. Her research interests are in personality and behavioral sciences areas.   

Krassimira Yaneva-Ribagina, Medical University

Krassimira Yaneva-Ribagina is a PhD Professor at the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University – Sofia, Bulgaria. Currently she is the head of the Department of Dental Public Health and supervisor of the PhD thesis “Teamwork in dental practice”. Her research areas are epidemiology of dental diseases, history of dentistry and sociological studies in dental practice.

Boyko Bonev , Medical University

Boyko Bonev is a PhD Associate Professor at the Department of Dental Public Health, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University – Sofia, Bulgaria. Master’s Degree in Dental Medicine from Sofia Medical University, Master’s Degree in Psychology from St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria and PhD in Dental Medicine from Medical University – Sofia, Bulgaria. His scientific interest is on prevalence of dental diseases, public health, dental education, dental anxiety, and communication in dental practice.

Stanislav Nenov , Medical University

Stanislav Nenov is a PhD candidate at the Department of Dental Public Health, Faculty of Dental medicine, Medical University – Sofia, Bulgaria and since 2020 he is Assistant Professor at the same department. Master’s Degree in Dental medicine at the Faculty of Dental medicine, Medical University – Sofia, Bulgaria and Master’s Degree in Public health and health management at the Faculty of Public Health, Medical University – Sofia, Bulgaria. His main research interests are related to communication and conflicts in dental practice, barriers for access to dental health and dental public health.     

References

Agius, A.M., Gatt, G., Vento Zahra, E., Busuttil, A., Gainza-Cirauqui ML, Cortes ARG, & et al. (2020). Self-reported dental student stressors and experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. J Dent Educ. (Online ahead of print). https://doi.org/10.1002/jdd.12409

Akinkugbe, A.A., Garcia, D.T., Smith, C.S., Brickhouse, T.H. & Mosavel, M. (2020). A descriptive pilot study of the immediate impacts of COVID-19 on dental and dental hygiene students' readiness and wellness. J Dent Educ. (Online ahead of print). https://doi.org/10.1002/jdd.12456

Al-Ansari, A. (2020). Dentists thoughts about COVID-19. Evid Based Dent, 21(2), 60-61.

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41432-020-0102-x

Al-Taweel, F.B., Abdulkareem, A.A., Gul, S.S. & Alshami, M.L. (2020). Evaluation of technology-based learning by dental students during the pandemic outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019. Eur J Dent Educ. (Online ahead of print). https://doi.org/10.1111/eje.12589

Amir, L.R., Tanti, I., Maharani, D.A., Wimardhani, Y.S., Julia, V., Sulijaya, B., & et al. (2020). Student perspective of classroom and distance learning during COVID-19 pandemic in the undergraduate dental study program Universitas Indonesia. BMC Med Educ, 20(1), 392. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-020-02312-0

Baloran, E.T. (2020). Knowledge, Attitudes, Anxiety, and Coping Strategies of Students during COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 25(8), 635-642. https://doi.org/10.1080/15325024.2020.1769300

Bolliger, D. & Erichsen, E. (2013). Student satisfaction with blended and online courses based on personality type. Can J Learn Tech, 39, 1. https://doi.org/10.21432/T2B88W

Chakraborty, T., Subbiah, G.K. & Damade, Y. (2020). Psychological Distress during COVID-19 Lockdown among Dental Students and Practitioners in India: A Cross-Sectional Survey. Eur J Dent. (Online ahead of print). https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1719211.

Chang, T.Y., Hong, G., Paganelli, C., Phantumvanit, P., Chang, W.J., Shieh, Y.S., & et al. (2020). Innovation of dental education during COVID-19 pandemic. J Dent Sci. (Online ahead of print). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jds.2020.07.011

Deery, C. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic: implications for dental education. Evid Based Dent, 21(2), 46-47. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41432-020-0089-3

Detoc, M., Bruel, S., Frappe, P., Tardy, B., Botelho-Nevers, E. & Gagneux-Brunon, A. (2020). Intention to participate in a COVID-19 vaccine clinical trial and to get vaccinated against COVID-19 in France during the pandemic. Vaccine, 38(45), 7002-7006. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.09.041

Elangovan, S., Mahrous, A. & Marchini, L. (2020). Disruptions during a pandemic: Gaps identified and lessons learned. J Dent Educ, 84(11), 1270-1274. https://doi.org/10.1002/jdd.12236

French, J., Deshpande, S., Evans, W. & Obregon, R. (2020). Key Guidelines in Developing a Pre-Emptive COVID-19 Vaccination Uptake Promotion Strategy. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 17(16), 5893. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165893

Generali, L., Iani, C., Macaluso, G.M., Montebugnoli, L., Siciliani, G. & Consolo, U. (2020). The perceived impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on dental undergraduate students in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna. Eur J Dent Educ. (Online ahead of print). https://doi.org/10.1111/eje.12640

Ghai, S. (2020). Are dental schools adequately preparing dental students to face outbreaks of infectious diseases such as COVID-19? J Dent Educ, 84(6), 631-633. https://doi.org/10.1002/jdd.12174

Grech, V. & Gauci, C. (2020). Vaccine hesitancy in the University of Malta Faculties of Health Sciences, Dentistry and Medicine vis-à-vis influenza and novel COVID-19 vaccination. Early Hum Dev, 105258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2020.105258

Hakami, Z., Khanagar, S.B., Vishwanathaiah, S., Hakami, A., Bokhari, A.M., Jabali, A.H., & et al. (2020). Psychological impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on dental students: A nationwide study. J Dent Educ. (Online ahead of print). https://doi.org/10.1002/jdd.12470

Haridy, R., Abdalla, M.A., Kaisarly, D. & Gezawi, M.E. (2020). A cross-sectional multicenter survey on the future of dental education in the era of COVID-19: Alternatives and implications. J Dent Educ. (Online ahead of print). https://doi.org/10.1002/jdd.12498

Haroon, Z., Azad, A.A., Sharif, M., Aslam, A., Arshad, K. & Rafiq, S. (2020). COVID-19 Era: Challenges and Solutions in Dental Education. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 30(10), 129-131. https://doi.org/10.29271/jcpsp.2020.Supp2.129

Hung, M., Licari, F.W., Hon, E.S., Lauren, E., Su, S., Birmingham, W.C., & et al. (2020). In an era of uncertainty: Impact of COVID‐19 on dental education. J Dent Educ, 85(2), 148–156. https://doi.org/10.1002/jdd.12404

Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. (2020). COVID-19 Map. https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html (Assessed Jan 27, 2021).

Jum'ah, A.A., Elsalem, L., Loch, C., Schwass, D. & Brunton, P.A. (2020). Perception of health and educational risks amongst dental students and educators in the era of COVID-19. Eur J Dent Educ. (Online ahead of print). https://doi.org/10.1111/eje.12626

Kharma, M.Y., Koussa, B., Aldwaik, A., Yaseen, J., Alamari, S., Alras, H., & et al. (2020). Assessment of Anxiety and Stress among Dental Students to Return to Training in Dental College in COVID-19 Era. Eur J Dent. (Online ahead of print). https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1717052.

Kwok, K.O., Li, K.K., Wei, W.I., Tang, A., Wong, S.Y.S. & Lee, S.S. (2021). Editor's Choice: Influenza vaccine uptake, COVID-19 vaccination intention and vaccine hesitancy among nurses: A survey. Int J Nurs Stud, 114: 103854. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2020.103854

La Fauci, V., Squeri, R., Genovese, C., Anzalone, C., Fedele, F., Squeri, A., & et al. (2019). An observational study of university students of healthcare area: knowledge, attitudes and behaviour towards vaccinations. Clin Ter, 170(6), e448-e453. https://doi.org/10.7417/CT.2019.2174.

Leng, A., Maitland, E., Wang, S., Nicholas, S., Liu, R. & Wang, J. (2021). Individual preferences for COVID-19 vaccination in China. Vaccine, 39(2), 247-254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.12.009

Loch, C., Kuan, I.B.J., Elsalem, L., Schwass, D., Brunton, P.A. & Jum'ah, A. (2021). COVID-19 and dental clinical practice: Students and clinical staff perceptions of health risks and educational impact. J Dent Educ, 85, 44-52. https://doi.org/10.1002/jdd.12402

Machado, R.A., Bonan, P.R.F., Perez, D.E.D.C. & Martelli Júnior, H. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic and the impact on dental education: discussing current and future perspectives. Braz Oral Res, 34, e083. https://doi.org/10.1590/1807-3107bor-2020.vol34.0083

Majeed, M.M., Durrani, M.S., Bashir, M.B. & Ahmed, M. (2020). COVID-19 and Dental Education in Pakistan. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 30(10), 115-117. https://doi.org/10.29271/jcpsp.2020.Supp2.115

Ozawa, S. & Stack, M.L. (2013). Public trust and vaccine acceptance—international perspectives. Hum Vaccin Immunother, 9(8), 1774-8. https://doi.org/10.4161/hv.24961

Pogue, K., Jensen, J.L., Stancil, C.K., Ferguson, D.G., Hughes, S.J., Mello, E.J., & et al. (2020). Influences on Attitudes Regarding Potential COVID-19 Vaccination in the United States. Vaccines (Basel), 8(4), 582. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040582

Qiao, S., Friedman, D.B., Tam, C.C., Zeng, C. & Li, X. (2020). Vaccine acceptance among college students in South Carolina: Do information sources and trust in information make a difference? medRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.12.02.20242982 [Preprint].

Qiao, S., Tam, C.C. & Li, X. (2020). Risk exposures, risk perceptions, negative attitudes toward general vaccination, and COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among college students in South Carolina. medRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.11.26.20239483 [Preprint].

Reiter, P.L., Pennell, M.L. & Katz, M.L. (2020). Acceptability of a COVID-19 vaccine among adults in the United States: How many people would get vaccinated? Vaccine, 38(42), 6500-6507. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.08.043

Rzymski, P., Borkowski, L., Drąg, M., Flisiak, R., Jemielity, J., Krajewski, J., & et al. (2021). The Strategies to Support the COVID-19 Vaccination with Evidence-Based Communication and Tackling Misinformation. Vaccines (Basel), 9(2), 109. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9020109

Sarwar, H., Akhtar, H., Naeem, M.M., Khan, J.A., Waraich, K., Shabbir, S., & et al. (2020). Self-Reported Effectiveness of e-Learning Classes during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Nation-Wide Survey of Pakistani Undergraduate Dentistry Students. Eur J Dent, 14(suppl S1), S34–S43. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1717000

Schlenz, M.A., Schmidt, A., Wöstmann, B., Krämer, N. & Schulz-Weidner, N. (2020). Students' and lecturers' perspective on the implementation of online learning in dental education due to SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19): a cross-sectional study. BMC Med Educ, 20(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-020-02266-3

Silva, P.G.B., de Oliveira, C.A.L., Borges, M.M.F., Moreira, D.M., Alencar, P.N.B., Avelar, R.L., & et al. (2020). Distance learning during social seclusion by COVID-19: Improving the quality of life of undergraduate dentistry students. Eur J Dent Educ. (Online ahead of print). https://doi.org/10.1111/eje.12583

Siritongthaworn, S., Krairit, D., Dimmitt, N.J. & Paul, H. (2006). The study of e-learning technology implementation: A preliminary investigation of universities in Thailand. Educ Inf Technol, 11, 137–160. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11134-006-7363-8

Sukumar, S., Dracopoulos, S.A. & Martin, F.E. (2020). Dental education in the time of SARS-CoV-2. Eur J Dent Educ. (Online ahead of print). https://doi.org/10.1111/eje.12608

Teo, T., Luan, W.S., Thammetar, T. & Chattiwat, W. (2011). Assessing e-learning acceptance by university students in Thailand. Australas J Educ Technol, 27(8). https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.898

Wang, K., Zhang, L. & Ye, L. (2021). A nationwide survey of online teaching strategies in dental education in China. J Dent Educ, 85, 128-134. https://doi.org/10.1002/jdd.12413

Wilcha, R.J. (2020). Effectiveness of Virtual Medical Teaching During the COVID-19 Crisis: Systematic Review. JMIR Med Educ, 6(2), e20963. https://doi.org/10.2196/20963

World Health Organization. (2021). Executive board, 148th session, Agenda item 6. Oral health. EB148.R1. https://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/EB148/B148_R1-en.pdf (Assessed Feb 01, 2021).

Downloads

Published

2021-07-31

How to Cite

Avramova, N. ., Mihaylova , I. ., Yaneva-Ribagina, K., Bonev , B., & Nenov , S. (2021). DENTAL STUDENTS’ PERSPECTIVES ON THE IMPLEMENTATION AND EFFECTIVENESS OF ONLINE LEARNING DUE TO COVID-19 PANDEMIC: A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN BULGARIA. Advanced Education, 8(18), 109–118. https://doi.org/10.20535/2410-8286.231011

Issue

Section

ARTICLES