DOI: https://doi.org/10.20535/2410-8286.125721

SEMANTIC ISSUES OF TRANSLATING AMERICAN SOCIOCULTURAL STEREOTYPES

Svitlana Lyubymova, Nadezhda Tomasevich, Olena Mardarenko

Abstract


Devoted to problems of translations, the work presents a qualitative analysis of semantic peculiarities of sociocultural stereotypes that influence the solutions of a translator in the process of interpreting. We hypothesised that a specific social category that exists in a source culture in the form of pragmatic predispositions, namely a sociocultural stereotype, which has no equivalent notion as well as a word in translation culture and language, is a lacunar stereotype. The words denoting sociocultural stereotypes evoke numerous images, built in accordance with cultural and ethnic patterns, therefore such stereotypes are almost impossible to preserve in translation language. The work is aimed to recognise parameters of lacunarity, to determine the semantic components that frame the reference in translation, and to suggest the ways in rendering lacunar sociocultural stereotypes. The data for research material is taken from the Corpus of Contemporary American English. As it was ascertained in the course of semantic analysis of lexical units that denote sociocultural stereotypes, the lacunarity of these stereotypes for a target culture is determined by linguistic, historic, social, and cultural parameters. A lack of appropriate lexical means in the translation language inevitably leads to some losses in denotative meaning, whereas connotative meaning is not possible to render adequately because of discrepancy between axiological systems of source and receiving cultures. Decomposition of stereotype pragmatic information into figurative, historic and connotative components enables to emphasise relevant for a particular context pragmatic component. Highlighting the relevant component, with consideration for peculiarities of represented genre and context, is a solution to convey a part of the original pragmatic information. We deduced two major techniques for translation of sociocultural stereotypes: (1) interpreting the unknown for the recipient word or (2) introducing a cultural element, which is familiar to the recipient. Representation of socio-cultural stereotypes by means of another language requires rigorous analysis of pragmatic information that stereotypes code. The work outlines future prospects for research of lacunarity and strategies to eliminate lacunae in a target culture.


Keywords


sociocultural stereotype; culture specific unit; lacuna; semantic decomposition; corpus; translation strategies

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bartmiński, J. (1995). Etnotsentrizm stereotipa: rezultaty issledovania nemetskih (Bohum) i pol’skih (Lublin) studentov v 1994-1994 godah [Ethnocentrism of a Stereotype: The Results of Research of German (Bochum) and Polish (Lublin) Students in 1993-1994], Rechevye I mental’nye stereotypy v sinhronii I diahronii (pp.7–9). Moscow, Russia: Institute of Slavonic and Balkan Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Bazylev, V. (2012). Perevodcheskie mify [Translator’s Fables]. Moscow, Russia: SGU.

Blažytė, D., & Liubinienė, V. (2016) Culture-Specific Items (CSI) and their Translation Strategies in Martin Lindstrom Brand Sense. Studies about Languages, 29, 42–57. https://doi.org/10.5755/j01.sal.0.29.15129

Bassnett, S. (2011). Reflections on Translation. Bristol: Multilingual Matters, ix–xvi.

Catford, J. (1965). A Linguistic Theory of Translation: An Essay on Applied Linguistics. London: Oxford University Press.

Coulmas, F. (1981). Routineim Gesprach. Zurpragmatishen Fundirung der Idiomatik. Wiesbaden: Athenaion.

Davies, E. (2003). A Goblin or a Dirty Nose? The Treatment of Culture-specific References in Translations of Harry Potter. The Translator 6, 65–100. https://doi.org//10.1080/13556509.2003.10799146

Eckert, P., & Mendoza-Denton, N. (2006) Getting Real in the Golden State (California). In W. Wolfram & B. Ward (Eds.), American voices: How dialects differ from coast to coast (pp.139-143). Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Fitzgerald, S. (2000). The Beautiful and Damned. New York: Donnelley and Sons Company.

Friend, T. (2010). Cheerful Money. Me, My family, and the Last Days of Wasp Splendor. Back Bay Books.

Guerra, A. F. (2012). Translating culture: problems, strategies and practical realities. A Journal of Literature, Culture and Literary Translation, 1, 1–27. https://doi.org/10.15291/sic/1.3.lt.1

Hervey, S., & Higgins, I. (1992). Thinking Translation. London: Routledge.

Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G.J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind: Intercultural Cooperation and its Importance for Survival. New York: McGraw Hill.

Jakobson, R. (1959). On linguistic Aspects of Translation. In R.A. Brower (Ed.), On Translation (pp.232-239). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Krings, H.P. (1986). Translation problems and translation strategies of advanced German learners of French. In J. House S.& Blum-Kulka (Eds.), Interlingual and Intercultural Communication (pp.263-275). Tubingen: Gunter Narr.

Liubymova, S. (2015). Lingvokulturny tipazh “devushka-flapper” v amerikanskom diskurse. Semantiko-kognitivnye i pragmaticheskiye aspekty reprezentatsii [Linguacultural Type “Flapper” in American Discourse. Cognitive Semantic and Pragmatic Aspects of the Representation]. Saarbrücken: Lambert Academic Publishing.

Mitchell, C.A., & Reid-Walsh, J. (2007). Girl Culture: An Encyclopedia. Westport, Connecticut: London: Greenwood Press.

Newmark, P. (1988). A Textbook of Translation. New York: Prentice Hall.

Nida, E. (1964). Toward a Science of Translating. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Nida, E., & Taber Ch. (1969). The Theory and Practice of Translation. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Nida, E. (2003). Fascinated by Languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

PC Magazine Encyclopedia (2018). Retrieved 15 February, 2018 from https://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia/term/68334/hipster

Pym, A. (2014). Exploring Translation Theories. New York: Routledge.

Robinson, D. (2003). Becoming a Translator: An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Translation. London: Routledge.

Quastohoff, U. (1978). The Uses of Stereotype in Everyday Argument: Theoretical and Empirical Aspects. Journal of Pragmatics, 2, 1-48.

Steinberg, Sh. (2007). An Introduction to Communication Studies. Cape Town: Mills Litho.

Vinay, J.-P., & Darbelnet J. (1995). Comparative Stylistics of French and English. A Methodology for Translation. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Zare-Behtash, E., & Firoozkohi, S. (2010). Culture-Specific Items in Literary Translations. Translation Journal, 14 (1). Retrieved 15 February, 2018 from https://translationjournal.net/journal/51culture.htm

Zhang, B. (2013). Innovative Thinking in Translation Studies: The Paradigm of Bassnett’s and Lefevere’s “Cultural Turn”. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 3 (10), 1919–1924. https://doi.org/10.4304/tpls.3.10.1919-1924

Zhang, M. (2015). WASP. In J. Stone, M.D. Rutledge, P. Rizova, A. D. Smith, X. Hou (Eds.), Wiley Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Race, Ethnicity and Nationalism. John Wiley and Sons. https://doi.org//10.1002/9781118663202.wberen692

Corpus of Contemporary American English (2017). Distributed by Mark Davies, Brigham Young University. Retrieved 15 February, 2018 from https://corpus.byu.edu/coca




Copyright (c) 2018 Svitlana Lyubymova

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

ISSN 2410-8286 (Online), ISSN 2409-3351 (Print)