self-perceived efficacy, school, student of teaching, mentor teachers, mentoting


This study aims to analyse selected variables which influence the self-perceived efficacy in mentor teachers with regard to mentoring student teachers on placement. The Mentor Efficacy Scale (Riggs, 2000) was used as the measuring instrument. Some items were removed, while others were modified for the purpose of specifically researching mentor teachers. Subsequently, exploratory factor analysis was performed (principal component analysis, promax rotation). Based on the result, the final version of the instrument explored two dimensions (general and personal efficacy). Cronbach’s alpha confirmed the optimal internal consistency of both the dimensions and the instrument itself. The research group consisted of 128 respondents cooperating with the Faculty of Arts at Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice. The majority of them comprised respondents with 26 – 30 and 31 and more years of teaching practice, 6 – 10 and 11 – 15 years of mentoring practice. A statistically significant difference was identified in the general efficacy of mentor teachers in terms of the completion of training focused on the development of mentoring skills. Another statistically significant difference was identified in the personal efficacy of mentor teachers in terms of the specific type of practice they are mentoring. Other independent variables such as gender, school type, length of the teaching practice, length of the mentoring practice, teaching qualifications, and position of an official mentor for entry-level colleagues, did not make a statistically significant difference in the perceived general and personal efficacy in mentor teachers. Our findings probably indicate that further education focused on mentoring boosts mentor teachers’ cooperating with Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice trust in the benefits of mentoring. Their engagement in the student training boosts their conviction that the students of teaching should receive career development support.



Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Michal Novocký, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice

Assistant professor, Faculty of Arts, Department of Pedagogy

Renáta Orosová, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice

Associate Professor, Faculty of Arts, Department of Pedagogy

Volodymyr Starosta, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice

Professor, Faculty of Arts, Department of Pedagogy


  1. Ali, A. D. & Adel, L. (2020). The Impact of Mentoring Program on In-Service Teachers’ Perceptions and Self-Efficacy. Journal of Faculty of Education for Education Sciences, 44(4), 13–48. DOI: 10.21608/jfees.2020.152402
  2. Aspfors, J. & Fransson, G. (2015). Research on mentor education for mentors of newly qualified teachers: A qualitative meta-synthesis. Teaching and Teacher Education, 48, 75–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2015.02.004
  3. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191–215. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191
    | | |
  4. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy. The exercise od control. New York, NY: W. H. Freeman & Company.
  5. Bates, A. B., Latham, N., & Kim, J. (2011). Linking Preservice Teachers' Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Mathematics Teaching Efficacy to Their Mathematical Performance. School Science and Mathematics, 111(7), 325–333. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1949-8594.2011.00095.x
    | |
  6. Carter, M. & Francis, R. (2001). Mentoring and Beginning Teachers' Workplace Learning. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 29(3), 249–262. https://doi.org/10.1080/13598660120091856
  7. Cruz, M. J. T. & Arias, P. F. C. (2007). Comparative analysis of expectancies of efficacy in in-service and prospective teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23(5), 641–652. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2007.02.005
    | |
  8. Duraku, Z. H., Blakaj, V., Likaj, E. S., Boci, L., & Shtylla, H. (2022). Professional training improves early education teachers’ knowledge, skills, motivation, and self-efficacy. Frontiers in Education, 7, 980254. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2022.980254
  9. Gale, J., Alemdar, M., Capelli, C., & Morris, D. (2021). A Mixed Methods Study of Self-Efficacy, the Sources of Self-Efficacy, and Teaching Experience. Frontiers in Education, 6, 750599. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2021.750599
  10. Garcia, C. & Badia, A. (2023). “I as a practicum mentor”: identities of mentors of student teachers. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 31(3), 335–351. https://doi.org/10.1080/13611267.2023.2202476
    | |
  11. Gavora, P. (2010). Slovak pre-service teacher self-efficacy: Theoretical and Research Considerations. The New Educational Review, 21(2), 17–30.
  12. Gavora, P. (2011). Measuring the self-efficacy of in-service teachers in Slovakia. Orbis Scholae, 5(2), 79–94. https://doi.org/10.14712/23363177.2018.102
  13. Handtke, K. & Bögeholz, S. (2020). Arguments for construct validity of the self-efficacy beliefs of interdisciplinary science teaching (self-st) instrument. European J Ed Res, 9(4), 1435–1453. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.9.4.1435
  14. Heeralal, P. J. H. (2014). Student Teachers’ Perspectives of Qualities of Good Mentor Teachers. Anthropologist, 17(1), 243–249. https://doi.org/10.1080/09720073.2014.11891434
  15. Hoxha, M. (2016). The Mentor and the Student-Teacher: An Important and Delicate Relationship. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 6(3), 87–92. DOI:10.5901/jesr.2016.v6n3p87
  16. Koki, S. (1997). The Role of Teacher Mentoring in Educational Reform. PREL Briefing Paper, 1–6. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED420647.pdf
  17. Korthagen, F. A. J. (2004). In search of the essence of a good teacher: Towards a more holistic approach in teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20(1), 77–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2003.10.002
  18. Lejonberg, E., Elstad, E., Sandvik, L. V., Solhaug, T., & Christophersen, K.-A. (2018). Mentors of preservice teachers: The relationships between mentoring approach, self-efficacy and effort. International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, 7(3), 261–279. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJMCE-12-2017-0076
  19. Li, R., Liu, H., Chen, Y., & Yao, M. (2022). Teacher engagement and self-efficacy: The mediating role of continuing professional development and moderating role of teaching experience. Current Psychology, 41, 328–337. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-019-00575-5
  20. Malderez, A. (2023). Mentoring Teachers. Supporting Learning, Wellbeing and Retention. New York, NY: Routledge.
  21. Maphalala, M. C. (2013). Understanding the Role of Mentor Teachers during Teaching Practice Session. International Journal of Educational Sciences, 5(2), 123–130. https://doi.org/10.1080/09751122.2013.11890069
  22. Mareš, J. (2020). Trendy a možný budoucí vývoj ve zkoumání self-efficacy. In A. Wiegerová (ed.). Self efficacy v edukačných souvislostech (pp. 37–44). Zlín: Univerzita Tomáše Bati ve Zlíně. Retrieved from https://digilib.k.utb.cz/bitstream/handle/10563/45947/Self_efficacy_v_edukacnich_souvislostech_II._2020.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y
  23. Marschall, G. (2022). The role of teacher identity in teacher self-efficacy development: the case of Katie. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 25, 725–747. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10857-021-09515-2
    | |
  24. Merket, M. (2022). An analysis of mentor and mentee roles in a pre-service teacher education program: a Norwegian perspective on the future mentor role. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 30(5), 524–550. https://doi.org/10.1080/13611267.2022.2127261
    | |
  25. Novocký, M. & Rovňanová, L. (2021). Relation between the implementation frequency of reflexive methods and self-efficacy of lower secondary school teachers. AD ALTA : Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, 11(1), 214–222. Retrieved from http://www.magnanimitas.cz/ADALTA/1101/papers/A_novocky.pdf
  26. Renbarger, R. & Davis, B. (2019). Mentors, Self-efficacy, or Professional Development: Which Mediate Job Satisfaction for New Teachers? A Regression Examination. Journal of Teacher Education and Educators, 8(1), 21–34. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jtee/issue/44909/559132#article_cite
  27. Riggs, I. M. (2000). The Impact of Training and Induction Activities upon Mentors as Indicated through Measurement of Mentor Self-Efficacy. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED442639.pdf
  28. Samaraweera, D., Hamid, J. A., Khatibi, A. A., Azam, S. M. F., & Dharmaratne, I. (2018). Mentees’ Burnout and Mentors’ Self Efficacy: A Study with the PreService ESL Teachers in Sri Lanka. International Journal of Current Innovations in Advanced Research, 1(4), 76–82. Retrieved from https://www.ijciar.com/index.php/journal/article/view/36
  29. Soodak, L. C. & Podell, D. M. (1996). Teacher efficacy: Toward the understanding of a multi-faceted construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 12(4), 401–411. Retrieved from https://reader.elsevier.com/reader/sd/pii/0742051X9500047N?token=367145A86EB093A4B6DB2409AA720CA7553B800B37488EBD3FF5E1F4D79BC1967F1BEFA2A6D776FB3BB0040A4013927A&originRegion=eu-west-1&originCreation=20230220144632
    | |
  30. Spilková, V. & Zavadilová, B. (2021). Mentoring jako prostředek podpory profesního učení studentů učitelství a učitelů. Pedagogická orientace, 31(1), 4–34. https://doi.org/10.5817/PedOr2021-1-4
  31. Švamberk Šauerová, M. (2018). Techniky osobnostního rozvoje a duševní hygieny učitele. Praha: Grada.
  32. Wilson, C., Woolfson, L. M., & Durkin, K. (2020). School environment and mastery experience as predictors of teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs towards inclusive teaching. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 24(2), 218–234. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2018.1455901
    | |
  33. Yazici, Z. & Tekerci, H. (2017). The pre-service preschool teachers' perception of mentor teacher. Route Educational and Social Science Journal, 4(5), 156–166.




How to Cite

Novocký, M., Orosová, R., & Starosta, V. (2023). FACTORS INCREASING SELF-PERCEIVED EFFICACY OF MENTOR TEACHERS: GENERAL AND PERSONAL EFFICACY. Advanced Education, 11(23), 118–130. https://doi.org/10.20535/2410-8286.288810