integrative motivation, instrumental motivation, motivational strategies, challenging circumstances, teaching English, pre-service English teachers


The problem of motivation in foreign language learning has always been of great importance. Researchers agree on the non-static, dynamic nature of motivation, investigate the role of the motivational context, and recognize the fact that some aspects of motivation are not internal but are externally determined by the learner’s sociocultural environment. The study aims to investigate the prevalent type of motivation among pre-service English teachers in challenging circumstances. The analysis of motivation sources and ways to protect and maintain motivation to learn English as a foreign language in challenging circumstances constitutes the novelty of the study. 60 fourth-year students (57 females and 3 males) participated in the investigation. The questionnaire adapted from Gardner's Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB) has  been used as a tool to collect quantitative data. The results reveal that the level of motivation is high with a prevalence of instrumental motivation. Qualitative data have been obtained from interviewing students. During the interviews, the students identified the sources of their motivation, critically evaluated their learning situation, and described their learning circumstances as challenging. The study suggests pedagogical implications in line with positive psychology recommendations and the latest research on the protection and maintenance of а motivation to learn English as a foreign language in challenging circumstances. The implications for teachers include developing motivational strategies, maintaining engagement, providing role models, using technology.


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Author Biographies

Iryna Zadorozhna, Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatiuk National Pedagogical University

Doctor of Sciences (Education), Professor,

Department of English Philology and Methods of Teaching English,

Vice-Rector (Research and International Cooperation),

Olha Datskiv, Volodymyr Hnatiuk National Pedagogical University

PhD in Education, Associate Professor,

Department of English Philology and Methods of Teaching English


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