DOI: https://doi.org/10.20535/2410-8286.132163

A QUALITATIVE EXPLORATION OF STUDENTS' EXPERIENCES WITH ACQUIRING CULTURE DURING FOREIGN LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION

Halis Gözpınar

Abstract


Language teachers ought to give their students a sound grounding in what is known as the five C’s—communication, communities, cultures, connections, and comparisons—in addition to the classic four basic language skills. This study examines how first-year Turkish students currently enrolled in a culture course at Giresun University view culture-focused courses, and how much cultural training they had received (if any) in high school prior to entering university. This study is qualitative in nature, and provides information by using multiple sources of data. The fact of the matter is that their high school teachers focused more on grammar and avoided culture due to the constraints of both time and of an exam-oriented education system. Regarding the benefits, the course has pushed them to examine the relationship between language and culture, offered a reason to study the target language, and made the learning process real. It takes patience and effort in order to convince youth of the necessity of languages, as well as to make them better aware of, and to dispel their prejudices towards other cultures. The study also provides recommended practices that can encourage educators to implement during foreign language instruction.


Keywords


higher education; language teachers; intercultural awareness; foreign language instruction; language skills

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adaskou, K., Britten, D. and Fahsi, B. (1990). Design decisions on the cultural content of a secondary English course for Morocco. ELT Journal, 44 ( 1), 3–10. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/44.1.3

Ahmad, H., & Shah, S. (2014). EFL textbooks: Exploring the suitability of textbook contents from EFL teachers’ perspective. VFAST Transactions on Education and Social Sciences, 5(1), 12-20.

Alptekin, C. (2002). Towards intercultural communicative competence in ELT. ELT Journal, 56(1), 57-64. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/56.1.57

Alsamaani, A. (2014). Evaluating classroom assessment techniques of novice Saudi EFL teachers. Journal of Arabic and Human Sciences, 7(2), 63-81. https://doi.org/10.12816/0009602

Atay, D., Kurt, G., Çamlıbel, Z., Ersin, P., & Kaslıoğlu, Ö. (2009). The role of intercultural competence in foreign language teaching. Inönü University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 10(3), 123-135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2009.01.283

Aydin, S. (2012). “I am not the same after my ERASMUS”: A qualitative research. The Qualitative Report, 17(Art. 55), 1-23.

Bada, E. (2000). Culture in ELT. Cukurova University Journal of Social Sciences, 6, 100-110.

Baker, W. (2012). From cultural awareness to intercultural awareness: Culture in ELT. ELT Journal, 66(1), 62-70. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccr017

Barnes-Karol, G., & Broner, M. A. (2010). Using images as spring boards to teach cultural perspectives in light of the ideals of the MLA report. Foreign Language Annals, 43(3), 422-445. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2010.01091.x

Bennett, M. (1997). How not to be a fluent fool: Understanding the cultural dimensions of language. In A. E. Fantini (Vol. ed.), & J. C. Richards (Series ed.), New Ways in Teaching Culture. New Ways in TESOL Series II: Innovative Classroom Techniques (pp. 16-21). Alexandria, VA: TESOL.

Bhawuk, D. P. S., & Brislin, R. (1992). The measurement of intercultural sensitivity using the concepts of individualism and collectivism. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 16, 413-436. https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(92)90031-o

Bourque, J. & Chehy, L. (1976). Exploratory Language and Culture A Unique Program. Foreign Language Annals, 9(1). 10-16. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.1976.tb03179.x

Brooks, N. (1969). Teaching culture in the foreign language classroom. The Florida FL Reporter 7, 20-28 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.1968.tb00135.x

Brown, H. D. (2000). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching [M]. 4th ed. NY: Longman.

Byram,M. (1989). Cultural Studies in Foreign Language Education. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters

Byram, M. (1991). Teaching culture and language: Towards an integrated model. In D. Buttjes, & M. Byram (Eds.), Mediating languages and cultures: Towards an intercultural theory of foreign language education (pp.17-32). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters

Byram, M. (Ed.). (1994). Culture and Language Learning in Higher Education. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Byram, M. (1997). Teaching and Assessing Intercultural Communicative Competence. Clevedon, U.K.: Multilingual Matters.

Byram, M. & M. Fleming (1998). Language learning in intercultural perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Byram, M., Morgan, C., & colleagues. (1994). Teaching-and-learning language-and-culture. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters

Byram, M., Gribkova, B., & Starkey, H. (2002). Developing the intercultural dimension in language teaching: A practical introduction for teachers. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe.

Byram, K., & Kramsch, C. (2008). Why is it so difficult to teach language as culture? The German Quarterly, 81(1), 20-34. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-1183.2008.00005.x

Byrd, D. R., Hlas, A. C., Watzke, J. & Montes Valencia, F. (2011). An examination of culture knowledge: A study of L2 teachers’ and teacher educators’ beliefs and practices. Foreign Language Annals, 44(1), 4-39. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2011.01117.x

Cakir, I. (2000). Developing cultural awareness in foreign language teaching. Turkey: Kirikkale University.

Chastain, K. (1971). The development of modern language skills: Theory to practice. Chicago: Rand McNally.

Cheung, C.-K. (2001). The use of popular culture as a stimulus to motivate secondary students' English learning in Hong Kong. ELT Journal, 55, (1) 55-61. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/55.1.55

Chlopek, Z. (2008). The intercultural approach to EFL teaching and learning. English Teaching Forum, 4, 10-27.

Choudhury, R.U. (2014). The role of culture in teaching and learning of English as a foreign Language. Express, International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 1, 1-20.

Clarke, J. and Clarke M. (1990). ‘Stereotyping in TESOL materials’, in Harrison, B. (ed.). Culture and the Language Classroom. Hong Kong: Modern English Publications and the British Council.

Cortazzi, M. & Jin, L. (1999). Cultural mirrors: Materials and methods in the EFL classroom. In Hinkel (ed.), Culture in second language teaching and learning (pp. 196-219). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Corbett, J. (2003). An intercultural approach to English language teaching. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853596858

Council of Europe. (2001). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Crawford-Lange, L. M., & Lange, D. L. (1984). Doing the unthinkable in the second-language class-room: A process for the integration of language and culture. In TV. Higgs (Ed.), Teaching for proficiency, the organizing principle (pp. 139-177). American Council of Teachers of Foreign Language

Çakır, I. (2015). Instructional Materials Commonly Employed by Foreign Language Teachers at Elementary Schools. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 8(1), 69-82

Damen, L. (1987). Culture learning: the fifth dimension in the language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Davis, J. J. & Markham, P. L. (1991). Student attitudes towards foreign language study at historically and predominantly black institutions. Foreign Language Annals, 24, (3), 227-236. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.1991.tb00467.x

Day, R.R. (1991). Models and the knowledge base of second language teacher education. University of Hawai Working Papers in ESL, 11(2), pp. 1–13.

Demircioğlu, Ş., & Çakır, C. (2015). Intercultural competence of English language teachers in International Baccalaureate World Schools in Turkey and abroad. Journal of language and linguistic studies, 11(1), 15-32. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v9n9p1

Devrim, Devo Y. & Bayyurt, Y. (2010). Students’ understandings and preferences of the role and place of ‘culture’ in English Language Teaching: A focus in an EFL context. TESOL Journal, 2, 4–24.

Drewelow, I. (2013). Impact of instruction on shaping or reshaping stereotypical cultural representations in an introductory French course. Foreign Language Annals, 46(2), 157–174. https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12029

Duff, P. A. (2001). Language, literacy, content, and (pop) culture: Challenges for ESL students in mainstream courses. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 58(1), 103-132. https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.58.1.103

Dweik, B. S., & Al-sayyed, S.W. (2015). Attitudes of Jordanian students, teachers and educationalists towards including culture in EFL classes and textbooks “Action Pack 12”. International Journal of Social Sciences, 40(1), 1126-1141.

Edgerton, M. F. (1971). A philosophy for the teacher of foreign languages. The Modern Language Journal, 55(1), 5-15. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1971.tb03595.x

Eoyang, E. (2003). Teaching English as Culture: Paradigm Shifts in Postcolonial Discourse. Diogenes, 50(2): 3–16. https://doi.org/10.1177/0392192103050002001

Fishman, J.A.(1982). Sociolinguistic foundations of bilingual education. Bilingual Review / La Revista Bilingüe. 9 (1) pp. 1-35

Farooq, M. U. (2015). Creating a communicative language teaching environment for improving students' communicative competence at EFL/EAP. International Education Studies, 8(4). https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v8n4p179

Fox, R., & Diaz Greenberg, R. (2006). Culture, multiculturalism, and foreign/world language standards in U.S. teacher preparation programs: Toward a discourse of dissonance. European Journal of Teacher Education, 29, 401–422. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619760600795270

Galloway, V. B. (1984). Communicating in a cultural context. ACTFL Master Lecture Series. Monterey, CA: Defense Language Institute.

Genc¸, B. & Bada, E. (2005). Culture in language learning and teaching. The Reading Matrix, 5(1), 73–84

Gorjian, B. & Aghvami, F. (2017). The Comparative Study of EFL Teachers and Learners’ Perceptions on the Importance of Teaching Culture. Applied Linguistics and Language Learning Journal, 3 (3), 71-78.

Gönen, S., & Sağlam, S. (2012). Teaching culture in the FL classroom: Teachers’ perspectives. International Journal of Global Education, 1(3).

Gözpınar,H. (2014). English Teachers' Interest in Proverbs in Language Teaching. The Journal of International Social Research, 7 (31)

Hejazi, M., Ghonsooly, B., Pishghadam, R., & Ahmadi, H. S. (2015). Home Culture Attachment and Comprehending L2 Written Texts: A Study on EFL learners in Iran. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(4). https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n4s3p383

Hadley, A. O. (1993). Teaching language in context. Boston: Heinle and Heinle Publishers.

Hammerly, H. (1982). Synthesis in language teaching. Blaine, WA: Second Language Publications.

Hamp-Lyons, E. (1983). Motivation for learning English as a world language: Integrative and instrumental. World Language English, 2(3), 145-149. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971x.1983.tb00541.x

Han, T. (2016). Yabancı/ İkinci Dil Olarak Türkçe ve İngilizce Sınıflarında Kültür Öğretimi. Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi [Culture Teaching in Turkish and English As-A-Foreign/ Second Language Classrooms]. Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi, 24(2), 703-718.

Harrison, B. (ed.) (1990). Culture and the Language Classroom. London: Modern English Publications

Higgs, T. (Ed.). (1984). Teaching for proficiency, the organizing principle. Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Company.

Ho, S. T. K. (2009). Addressing culture in EFL classrooms: The challenge of shifting from a traditional to an intercultural stance. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 6(1), 63-76.

Hofstede, G. & Hofstede, G. J. (2005). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind (Rev. 2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Hol, D. & Erarslan, A. (2015). Moving beyond Language: Awareness of EFL Learners in Target Language Culture. CBU International Conference Proceedings. https://doi.org/10.12955/cbup.v3.620

Izadpanah, S. (2011). The Review Study: The Place of Culture in English Language Teaching. US China Foreign Language, 9(2), 109-116.

Jabeen, F., & Shah, S. K. (2011). The role of culture in ELT: learners’ attitude towards the teaching of target language culture. European Journal of Social Sciences, 23(4), 592-601.

Jiang, X., & Cohen, A. D. (2012). A critical review of research on strategies in learning Chinese as both a second and foreign language. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 1, 9-43. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2012.2.1.2

Kahraman, A. (2016). Teachers‟ and learners‟ attitudes towards culture and culture learning in a Turkish context. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 12(2), 01-12.

Karabinar, S. & Guler, C. Y. (2012). The attitudes of EFL teachers towards teaching culture and their classroom practices. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 2(2), 113-126.

Keller, H, H. & Ferguson, J. W. (1976). A cultural introduction to foreign languages. Foreign Language Annals, 9(1), 50-55. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.1976.tb03187.x

Kitao, K. (2000). Teaching culture in foreign language instruction in the Unites States. Doshisha Studies in English, 52, 285-306.

Klayman, N.B. (1976). Teaching culture in English to motivate foreign language study. Foreign Language Annals, 9(4), 289-293. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.1976.tb02651.x

Klippel, F. (1994). Cultural aspects in foreign language teaching. Journal for the Study of British Cultures, 1(1), 49-61.

Kramsch, C. (1993). Context and culture in language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kramsch, C. (1998). Language and Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kramsch, C. (2001). Language and Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Krashen, S. (1982). Accounting for child-adult differences in second language rate and attainment. In S.Krashen, R. Scarcella, & M. Long (Eds.), Child-adult differences in second language acquisition (pp. 202-226). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Leward, H. E. (1968). A tentative outline of problems in the knowledge understanding and teaching of cultures pertaining to the target language. The Modern Language Journal, 52(5), 301-309. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1968.tb01909.x

Lunenburg, F. C., & Ornstein, A. O. (2012). Educational administration: Concepts and practices (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/ Cengage Learning.

Matsumoto, D. (2009). Teaching about culture. In: Gurung RAR, Prieto LR (Eds.), Getting Culture: Incorporating Diversity Across the Curriculum (pp.3-10). Sterling, VA: Stylus.

McKay, S. L. (2002). Teaching English as an international language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Minami, M., and Ovando, C. (2004). Language Issues in Multicultural Contexts. In J Banks (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education (pp.567-588). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Morain, G. G. (1970). Cultural pluralism. In I. L. Lange (Ed.), Britannica review of foreign language education (pp. 59-95). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.

National Standards in Foreign Language Education Project (2006). Standards for foreign language learning: Preparing for the 21st century. Yonkers, NY: American Council for the Teaching of Foreign Languages

Omaggio, A. (1986). Teaching language in context: Proficiency- oriented instruction. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Önalan, O. (2005). EFL teachers‟ perceptions of the place of culture in ELT: A survey study at four universities in Ankara/Turkey. The Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 1(2), 215-235. Peck, D. (1998). Teaching Culture: Beyond Language. Yale: New Haven Teachers Institute.

Prodromou, L. (1988). English as cultural action. ELT Journal, 42 (2), 73–83. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/42.2.73

Pulverness, A. (1999). The fifth skill- intercultural awareness and language learning. Anthology Issues, 6 (10), 26-30.

Pulverness, A. (2004). Here and There: Issues in Materials Development for Intercultural Learning. Retrieved May, 15, 2018 from http://www.academia.edu/268758/Here_and_There_Issues_In_Materials_Development_for_Intercultural_Learning

Rafieyan, V., Norazman Bin Abdul Majid, & Lin, S. E. (2013). Relationship between attitude toward target language culture instruction and pragmatic comprehension development. English Language Teaching, 6(8), 125-132. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v6n8p125

Rivers, Wilga M. (1968). Teaching foreign-language skills. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

Saluveer, E. (2004). Teaching cultures in English classes. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Tartu, Estonia.

Ropo, E. (1987). Skills for Learning: A Review of Studies on Inductive Reasoning.Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 31(3)3, 1-39. https://doi.org/10.1080/0031383870310103

Schaffer, C. (1989). A comparison of inductive and deductive approaches to teaching foreign languages. Modern Language Journal, 73, 395-403. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1989.tb05319.x

Schuetze, U. (2008). Exchanging second language messages online: Developing an intercultural communicative competence. Foreign Language Annals, 41(3), 660–673. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2008.tb03323.x

Seelye, H. N. (1984). Teaching culture: Strategies for intercultural communication (2nd Ed.). Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook.

Sercu, L. (1998). In-service teacher training and the acquisition of intercultural competence. In Byram, M. & Fleming, M. (eds.), Language learning in intercultural perspectives (pp. 255–289). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sercu, L. (2005). Foreign language teachers and the implementation of intercultural education. A comparative investigation of Belgian English, French and German teachers’ professional self-concepts and teaching practices. European journal of teacher education, 28(1), 87–105. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619760500040389

Sercu,L., Gracia,M. and and Prieto, P. (2004). Culture teaching in foreign language education.EFL teachers in Spain as cultural mediators. Porta Linguarum, 1 (1), 85-102. Retrieved May, 31, 2018 from http://hdl.handle.net/10481/28351

Smith, L. (1976). English as an international auxiliary language. RELC Journal, 7(2), 38-43. https://doi.org/10.1177/003368827600700205

Stainer, F. (1971). Culture: A motivating factor in the French classroom. In C. Jay & P. Castle (Eds.), French language education: The teaching of culture in the classroom. Springfield, IL: State Department of Public Instruction

Stapleton, P. (2000). Culture’s role in TEFL: An attitude survey in Japan. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 13(3), 291–305. https://doi.org/10.1080/07908310008666605

Steiner, G. (1971). In Bluebeard's Castle: Some Notes Towards the Redefinition of Culture. New Haven, CT: Yale UP.

Stern, B.B. (1992). Historical and personal nostalgia in advertising text: the fin de sieÁcle effect. Journal of Advertising, 21 (4), 11-22. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.1992.10673382

Stern, H. H. (1983). Fundamental concepts of language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Tajeddin, Zia & Teirmournezhad, Shohreh. (2015). Exploring the Hidden Agenda in the Representation of Culture in International and Localised ELT Textbooks. The Language Learning Journal, 43 (2), 180-193. https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2013.869942

Taylor, H. (1969). The world as teacher. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

Thanasoulas, D. (2001). The importance of teaching culture in the foreign language classroom. Radical pedagogy, 3(3), 1-25.

Tomalin, B. (2008). Culture the fifth language skill. Retrieved May 15, 2018 from http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/ think/articles/culture-fifthlanguage-skill

Tsou, W. (2005). The effects of cultural instruction on foreign language learning. RELC Journal, 36(1), 39-57. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688205053481

Tuna, Ö. K. & Razı, S. (2016). Integrating Culture into ELT Classes: What, Why, and How? Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 232, 41-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.10.009

Türkan, S., and Çelik, S. (2007). Integrating culture into EFL texts and classrooms: Suggested lesson plans. Online Submission, 1(1), 18-33.

Valdes, J. (1990). The inevitability of teaching and learning culture in a foreign language course. In B. Harrison (Ed.), Culture and the Language Classroom (pp. 20-30). ELT Documents: 132. London: Modern English Publications.

Yeşil, S., & Demiröz, H. (2017). An exploration of English language teachers’ perceptions of culture teaching and its effects on students’ motivation. International Journal of Progressive Education, 13, 79-95

Zhu, H. (2014). Exploring Intercultural Communication: Language in Action. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404514000797




Copyright (c) 2018 Halis Gözpınar

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

ISSN 2410-8286 (Online), ISSN 2409-3351 (Print)