METAPHORISATION OF BREXIT IN MODERN POLITICAL DISCOURSE
The article deals with an interdisciplinary perspective to a political discourse presenting conceptual metaphors as a powerful and effective means for conceptualising life experience of modern society. The focus of the study is on the analysis of topics of intense interest in the political communications and especially the mass media which is considered to be in the centre of political continuum. The research presupposes the analysis the conceptual metaphors which are built up on mappings concerning such source domains as HUMAN BEING, NATURAL PHENOMENON, DISEASE that provides a way to structure target domain of the concept BREXIT. Being produced by world politicians and political journalists these conceptual metaphors are both directly and indirectly aimed at distributing political power on perceiving and understanding such a concept as BREXIT. Under the Conceptual metaphor theory framework, this paper discusses the dynamic and flexible features of such metaphors as BREXIT IS A HUMAN BEING, BREXIT IS A NATURAL PHENOMENON, and BREXIT IS A DISEASE which can influence the audience and transform themselves into one of the effective tools of conceptualisation of reality. Of special interest is the mapping which is viewed as the sets of systematic correspondences between the source and the target domains.
A post-Brexit recovery can never happen if we don't tackle debt among the young (2017, October 16). Independent. Retrieved February 19, 2017, from http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/editorials/a-post-brexit-recovery-can-never-happen-if-we-dont-tackle-debt-among-the-young-a8003641.html
Bayram, F. (2010). Ideology and Political Discourse: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Erdogan’s Political Speech. ARECLS, 7, 23-40.
Bennhold, K. (2017, November 21). Where Brexit Hurts: The Nurses and Doctors Leaving London. The New York Times. Retrieved February 19, 2017, from https://www.nytimes.com/ 2017/11/21/world/europe/nhs-brexit-eu-migrants.html
Brexit: UK 'must not allow itself to be blackmailed' (2017, September 1). BBC NEWS. Retrieved February 22, 2018, from http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-41119870
Britain will suffer from Brexit more than EU: German minister. (2017, October 11). REUTERS. Retrieved February 19, 2017, from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu-germany/britain-will-suffer-from-brexit-more-than-eu-german-minister-idUSKBN1CG1CR
Bystrov, Y. (2014). Fractal metaphor LIFE IS A STORY in biographical narrative. Topics in Linguistics, 14(1), 1-8. http://dx.doi.org/topling-2014-0007
Cammaerts, B. (2012). The strategic use of metaphors by political and media elites: The 2007–11 Belgian constitutional crisis. International Journal of Media & Cultural Politics, 8(2), 229-249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1386/macp.8.2-3.229_1
Chilton, P. and Ilyin, M. (1993). Metaphor in Political Discourse: The Case of the “Common European House”. Discourse & Society 4(1), 7-31. Retrieved February 19, 2017, from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0957926593004001002
Chilton, P. & Schäffner, C. (2002). Politics as Text and Talk: Analytic Approaches to Political Discourse. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Chisholm, J. (2016, July 4). Stock markets continue post-Brexit recovery. Financial Times. Retrieved February 19, 2017, from https://www.ft.com/content/aa096aa6-7449-32d0-9673-3718b6d439b5
Chudinov, A.P. (2003). Metaphoricheskaya mozaika v sovremennoy politicheskoy kommunikatsii [Metaforicheskaya mozaika v sovremennoy politicheskoy kommunikatsii]. Ekaterinburg, Russia: Ural. gos. ped. un-t.
Davis, S. (2017, December 13). 'It will never be competitive!' German MEP warns EU will suffer MOST after Britain leaves. Sunday Express. Retrieved February 19, 2017, from https://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/891726/Brexit-news-deal-European-Union-Hans-Olaf-Henkel-Brussels-UK-EU-latest
Eaton, G. (2017, October 27). How Brexit has made Britain the new sick man of Europe. NewStatesman. Retrieved February 22, 2018, from https://www.newstatesman.com/politics/economy/2017/10/how-brexit-has-made-britain-new-sick-man-europe
Elliot, F. (2018, January 17). Jean-Claude Juncker pledges to help Britain rejoin EU. The Sunday Times. Retrieved February 22, 2018, from https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/jean-claude-juncker-pledges-to-help-britain-rejoin-eu-tkq50nkrh
EP comms chief insists Brexit is a ‘vaccine’ not a ‘disease’. (2017, May 9). Euractiv. Retrieved February 19, 2017, from https://www.euractiv.com/section/future-eu/news/ep-comms-chief-insists-brexit-is-a-vaccine-not-a-disease/
EU's Tusk tells Britain's May he wants 'velvet divorce' after Brexit vote. (2016, July 19). Reuters. Retrieved February 22, 2018, from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu-tusk/eus-tusk-tells-britains-may-he-wants-velvet-divorce-after-brexit-vote-idUSKCN0ZZ2KZ
Foster, A. (2017, January 26). What is Brexit and what is going to happen now that Britain has voted to LEAVE the EU? Express. Retrieved February 22, 2018, from https://www.express.co.uk/news/politics/645667/Brexit-EU-European-Union-Referendum-David-Cameron-Economic-Impact-UK-EU-exit-leave
Gilbert, S. F. (1979). The metaphorical structuring of social perceptions. Soundings, 62, 166-186.
Gove, M. (2018, January 25). Brexit is a chance to take back control of our environment. Politico. Retrieved February 22, 2018, from https://www.politico.eu/article/michael-gove-opinion-brexit-is-a-chance-to-take-back-control-of-our-environment/
'Hard' Brexit offers '£135bn annual boost' to economy. (2017, August 20). BBC NEWS. Retrieved February 22, 2018, from http://www.bbc.com/news/business-40972776
Howe, N. (1988). Metaphor in contemporary American political discourse. Metaphor & Symbolic Activity, 3, 87-104.
Karasik, V. (2004). Iazykovoi Krug: Lichnost', Kontsepty, Diskurs [Language Circle: Personality, Concepts, Discourse]. Moscow, Russia: Gnosis.
Kövecses, Z. (2002). Metaphor: A Practical Introduction. New York : Oxford University Press.
Kövecses, Z. (2015). Where Metaphors Come from: Reconsidering Context in Metaphor. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kuenssberg, L. (2018, February 23). Chequers Brexit talks - a happy ending?. BBC NEWS. Retrieved February 22, 2018, from http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-43164268
Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors We Live By. University of Chicago Press: Chicago.
Landale, J. (2017, July 28). Brexit means what? Time for the metaphors to stop. BBC NEWS. Retrieved February 22, 2018, from http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-40726215
Leave campaign ahead in UK's EU referendum vote. (2016, June 24). BBC NEWS. Retrieved February 22, 2018, from http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-eu-referendum-36612368
Maconie, S. (2014, April 17). The man in the papier mâché head. NewStatesman. Retrieved February 22, 2018, from https://www.newstatesman.com/culture/2014/04/man-papier-m-ch-head
MacKenzie, I. (2009). Politics: Key Concepts in Philosophy. London & New York: Continuum International Publishing.
Mary McAleese fears border checks are inevitable post-Brexit. (2017, August 25). BBC NEWS. Retrieved February 19, 2017, from http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-northern-ireland-41056371
Mathiesen, K. (2016, April 4). Brexit could put Britain’s environment at risk, says Stanley Johnson. The Guardian. Retrieved February 22, 2018, from https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/apr/04/brexit-could-put-britains-environment-at-risk-says-stanley-johnson
Prime Minister's speech on the environment: 11 January 2018. (2018, January 11). GOV.UK. Retrieved February 22, 2018, from https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/prime-ministers-speech-on-the-environment-11-january-2017
Roberts, D. (2017, July 3). Brexit: British officials drop 'cake and eat it' approach to negotiations. The Guardian. Retrieved February 22, 2018, from https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2017/jul/02/british-officials-drop-cake-and-eat-it-approach-to-brexit-negotiations
Shapps, G. (2017, July 8). Trade: A Cure for Brexit Depression. The Huffington Post [Blog post]. Retrieved February 19, 2017, from http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/grant-shapps/brexit-uk-economy_b_10853326.html
Sharma. R. (2016, July 28). Globalisation as we know it is over – and Brexit is the biggest sign yet. The Guardian. Retrieved February 22, 2018, from https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/jul/28/era-globalisation-brexit-eu-britain-economic-frustration
Sheigal, E. (2000). Semiotika politicheskogo diskursa [Semiotics of Political Discourse]. Volgograd: Peremena.
Sparrow, A. (2018, February 14). Pro-Europeans praise Nigel Farage for backing second Brexit referendum – as it happened. The Guardian. Retrieved February 22, 2018, from https://www.theguardian.com/politics/blog/live/2018/jan/11/theresa-may-environment-speech-plastics-brexit-speech-dubbed-missed-opportunity-as-campaigners-call-for-tighter-plastics-crackdown-politics-live?page=with:block-5a57437be4b043ead794ce2a
Stockman, D. (2016, June 28). Frexit or Italeave? European Countries Set To Follow In the Footsteps Of Britain. Daily Reckoning. Retrieved February 19, 2017, from https://dailyreckoning.com/frexit-italeave-european-countries-set-follow-footsteps-britain/
Stone, J. (2016, September 15). Britain already had no friends in Europe before Brexit, EU's Van Rompuy says. Independent. Retrieved February 19, 2017, from http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/britain-already-had-no-friends-in-europe-before-brexit-eus-van-rompuy-says-a7308771.html
Van Dijk, T. A. (2002). Political discourse and Ideology. In Clara Ubaldina Lorda & Montserrat Ribas (Eds.), Anàlisi del discurs polític (pp.15-34). Barcelona: Universitat Pompeu Fabra. IULA.
Van Dijk, T. A. (1977). Text and Context. Exploration in the Sеmantics and Pragmatics of Discourse. London: Longman.
Whitfield, G. (2017, July 29). Brexit Recovery Harder for North East. The Journal. Retrieved February 19, 2018, from https://www.questia.com/newspaper/1G1-499481561/brexit-recovery-harder-for-north-east-study
Wodak, R. (2007). Pragmatics and Critical Discourse Analysis. A cross-disciplinary inquiry. Pragmatics and Cognition, 15(1), 203-225. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1075/pc.15.1.13wod
Copyright (c) 2018 Olha Bilyk, Nataliia Pyliachyk
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
ISSN 2410-8286 (Online), ISSN 2409-3351 (Print)