THE STRATEGY OF STRUCTURING INFORMATION ACCORDING TO ITS RELEVANCE IN MIND MANIPULATION
The article deals with the linguistic means of mind manipulation and the strategy of structuring information according to its relevance. The author offers an overall classification of manipulation strategies and tactics and goes on to analyse how the strategy of structuring information according to its relevance is implemented in various communicative situations. The article focuses on giving a detailed analysis of the strategy and linguistic and extra-linguistic means used to manipulate the addressee. The author looks into the theoretical grounds of “the compliment sandwich” along with its practical application in communication, analysing a failed attempt of this act and offering an explanation why the act was unsuccessful. The author also demonstrates how an act of mind manipulation may be successful even after the addressee realises they have been manipulated, offering reasons for such an outcome. Special attention is given to the analysis of mind manipulation act where the target is guided by the manipulator from beginning to end, without realising of being manipulated. The article maintains that a successful manipulation act is based on a variety of techniques as well as the knowledge of the addressee’s personal traits and the dexterity of the manipulator. Verbal means are enforced by non-verbal ones producing the desired effect.
Adams, S. (2005). Propaganda in war and peace. Chicago: Heinemann Library.
Aitchison, J. (2003). Words in the mind: An introduction to the mental lexicon. Oxford and New York: Basil Blackwell.
Von Bergen, C.W., Bressler, M.S., & Campbell, K. (2014). The Sandwich Feedback Method: not very tasty. Journal of Behavioral Studies in Business, 7. Retrieved January, 20 from http://www.aabri.com
Chomsky, N. (November/December 1990). Bewildering the Herd. Noam Chomsky interviewed by Rick Szykowny. The Humanist. Retrieved February 15, 2018 from https://chomsky.info/19900907/.
Collins Learner Dictionary (n.d.). Retrieved November 4, 2017 from https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/humble
Cook, G. (1992). The discourse of advertising. London: Routledge.
Danciu, V. (2014). Manipulative marketing: persuasion and manipulation of the consumer through advertising. Theoretical and Applied Economics, 2(591), 19-34.
Danesi, M. (2016) The Semiotics of Emoji: The Rise of Visual Language in the Age of the Internet. London, Oxford, New York, New Delhi, Sydney: Bloomsbury Publishing.
Daniels, A. C. (2009). Oops! 13 management practices that waste time and money (and what to do instead). Atlanta, GA: Performance Management Publications.
Dijk, T. A. van. (2003). Critical Discourse Analysis. In D. Schiffrin, D. Tannen, and H. E. Hamilton (Eds.), The Handbook of Discourse Analysis (pp. 352-371). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Dmytruk, O. (2006) Manipuliatyvni stratehii v suchasnii anhlomovnii komunikatsii (na materiali tekstiv drukovanykh ta Internet-vydan 2000–2005 rokiv) [Manipulative Strategies in Modern English Communication (on the material of printed and Internet editions of 2000-2005)]. Unpublished Candidate dissertation, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine.
Dotsenko, E. (1997). Psikhologiya manipulyatsii [Psychology of Manipulation]. Moscow, Russia: CheRo.
Eemeren, F. van. (2005). Foreword: Preview by Review. In L. de Saussure and J. P. Schulz (Eds.), Manipulation and Ideologies in the Twentieth Century: Discourse, language, mind (pp. ix-xv). John Benjamins Publishing: Amsterdam/Philadelphia. https://doi.org/10.1075/dapsac.17.01eem
Ekman, P. & Friesen, W. V. (1984). Unmasking the Face: A Guide to Recognizing Emotions from Facial Clues. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Gerstein, L. (Writer), & Schultz, M. (Director). (2015, January 16). The Curling Iron. [Television series episode] In Kucserka S. et al. (Producers), Hart of Dixie. Burbank: The CW. Retrieved November 4, 2017 from http://www.tvguide.com/tvshows/
Givón, T. & Young, Ph. (2002). Cooperation and interpersonal manipulation in the society of intimates. In Shibatani M. (Ed.), The Grammar of Causation and Interpersonal Manipulation (pp. 23-27). John Benjamins Publishing: Amsterdam/Philadelphia. https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.48.05giv
Herbert, K. (1986). Say “thank you” or something. American Speech, 61(1), 7688. https://doi.org/10.2307/454710
Holtz-Bacha, Ch.& Just, M. R. (2017). Routledge Handbook of Political Advertising. NY: Routledge.
Korsh, A. (Writer), & Tree, S. (Director). (2015, August 19). Uninvited Guests. [Television series episode]. In Klein, G., Macht, G., Adams, P. J. (Producers), Suits. New York City: USA Network. Retrieved January 12, 2018 from http://www.tvguide.com/tvshows/
Lakoff, R. T. (2000). The Language War. Berkley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press.
Lasswell, H. D. (1969). Power and Personality. N.Y.: The Viking Press.
Lazarus, C. N. (2011, October 29). The Art of Constructive Criticism. Psychology Today. Retrieved January 20, 2018 from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/think-well/201110/the-art-constructive-criticism
Lung, H. & Prowant, Ch. (2002). Mind Manipulation: Ancient and Modern Ninja Techniques. Secaucus: Citadel Press.
Nelson, D. L., & Quick, J. C. (2013). Organizational behavior: Science, the real world, and you (8th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western.
Orwell, G. (1969). Politics and the English Language. In W.F. Bolton and D. Crystal (Eds.), The English Language (pp. 217-229). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pinker, S. (2009). The Sexual Paradox: Extreme Men, Gifted Women and the Real Gender Gap. Toronto: Vintage Canada.
Pocheptsov, G. (2009). Izbrannye trudy po lingvistike [Selected works in linguistics]. Kharkiv, Ukraine: V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University.
Pomerantz, A. (1978). Compliment responses: notes on the co-operation of multiple constraints. In Schenkein J. (Ed.), Studies in the Organization of Conversational Interaction (pp. 79-112). New York, Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-623550-0.50010-0
Rhimes, Sh. (Writer) & D'Elia, B. (Director). (2018, January 18). 1-800-799-7233. [Television series episode]. In Kindberg, A. et al. (Producers), Grey’s Anatomy. New York City: American Broadcasting Company. Retrieved January 20, 2018 from http://www.tvguide.com/tvshows/greys-anatomy/episode-9-season-14/1-800-799-7233/191535/
Roberts, R. (2015). Psychology and Capitalism: The Manipulation of Mind. Ropley: John Hunt Publishing.
Saussure, L. de. (2005). Manipulation and cognitive pragmatics: Preliminary hypothesis. In L. de Saussure and J. P. Schulz (Eds.), Manipulation and Ideologies in the Twentieth Century: Discourse, language, mind (pp. 113-146). John Benjamins Publishing: Amsterdam/Philadelphia. https://doi.org/10.1075/dapsac.17
Talisse R. & Aikin S. F. (2006). Two Forms of the Straw Man. Argumentation, 20(3), 345–352. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10503-006-9017-8
Wierzbicka, A. (2000). The semantics of human facial expressions. Pragmatics & Cognition, 8(1), 147-183. https://doi.org/10.1075/pc.8.1.08wie
Wilke, J. (2005). Press instructions as a tool to manipulate the public under the German Nazi government – with an eye towards the German Democratic Republic. In L. de Saussure and J. P. Schulz (Eds.), Manipulation and Ideologies in the Twentieth Century: Discourse, language, mind (pp. 275-304). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1075/dapsac.17.14wil
Winn, D. (2000). The Manipulated Mind: Brainwashing, Conditioning, and Indoctrination. Cambridge: Malor Books.
Copyright (c) 2018 Olga Dmytruk
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
ISSN 2410-8286 (Online), ISSN 2409-3351 (Print)