METHODS THAT WORK: BEST PRACTICES OF ADULT EDUCATORS IN THE USA
The article discusses best practices of American adult educators. The basic terms related to the topic, which are used in academic literature, are defined. Considering the range of terms synonymous to “adult educator” (teacher, instructor, trainer, practitioner, facilitator, mentor, educator, resource person, programme advisor, etc.), the roles adult educators play are described. The article concentrates on identifying the most important barriers to learning of adults (situational, dispositional, institutional, environmental, emotional) understanding of which is necessary for adult educators. Previous experience of adults is described as one of possible reasons for resistance to learning. The paper also reveals methods which adult educators use to overcome the barriers and facilitate adult learners in reaching their educational goals, the importance of flexibility for adult educators, providing choices for adults and ways of getting feedback. The eclectic approach to teaching adults, which may combine learner-centred teaching, content-centred teaching, reflective teaching, cooperative learning, experiential learning, and even traditional teaching, is found to be most appropriate. Thus, the article suggests considering the needs of adults, not adherence to a certain theory or approach, to be of utmost importance for adult educators. Best practices of American adult educators include: theory followed by practice, equal participation, team work, availability of choices, different types of assessment and reflection, which ensure practice, variety and enforcement.
Anthony, E. M. (1963). Approach, Method, and Technique. ELT Journal XVII (2), 63–67. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/xvii.2.63
Bries, T. (2013). Teaching Tip: Five Easy Kinesthetic Activities for Adults. ITBE Link: A Quarterly Newsletter – Fall 2013. Retrieved 15 September, 2017 from http://www.itbe.org/v_newsletters/article_11881185.htm
Brooks-Lewis, K. A. (2012). Stereotyping in foreign language education. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 51, 523-526. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.08.200
Brown, H. (1994). Teaching by principles: an interactive approach to language pedagogy. New Jersey: Prentice hall Regents.
Chugai, O. (2016). Profesijna pidhotovka pedahohichnoho personalu dlya systemy osvity doroslyx USA [Professional training of pedagogical staff for the adult education system in the United States]. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Kyiv, Ukraine.
Claremont Graduate University TEA Program 2012 Handbook (2012). Claremont: CGU.
Dinkel, A. M. (2011). Training the Kinesthetic learner. ALN Magazine. Retrieved 17 September, 2017 from https://www.alnmag.com/article/2011/06/training-kinesthetic-learner
Houle, C. O. (1996). The design of education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Hughes, J. & McLarty, R. (2016). ETpedia Business English: 500 ideas for Business English teachers. London: Pavilion Publishing and Media Ltd.
Knowles, M. S. (1990). The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species (4th ed.) Houston, London, Paris, Zurich, Tokyo: Gulf Publishing.
Lieb, S. (1991). Principles of Adult Learning. Retrieved 11 September, 2017 from http://www.life-slc.org/learningprinciples/Principles_of_Adult_Learning.pdf
Merriam, S. B. (2007). The Profession and Practice of Adult Education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741713608322827
Merriam-Webster Dictionary (2017). Retrieved 14 September, 2017 from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/best%20practice
Mertesdorf, J. C. (1990). Learning styles and barriers to learning perceived by adult students on campus. Retrospective Theses and Dissertations. 11207. Retrieved 15 September, 2017 from http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/rtd/11207.
Ogienko, O. (2016). Facilitation in the context of pedagogical activities. Advanced Education, 5, 85 – 89. https://doi.org/10.20535/2410-8286.70621
Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher Should Know. Boston, Mass.: Heinle and Heinle Publishers.
Post, H. W. (2010.) Teaching Adults: What Every Trainer Needs to Know About Adult Learning Styles. Retrieved 14 September, 2017 from PACER Center http://www.fastfamilysupport.org/fasttraining/Other/teachingadults-whattrainersneedtoknow.pdf
Reed, A.J.S. (1998). A Guide to Observation and Participation In the Classroom. Boston, Mass.: McGraw-Hill.
Richards, J. C. (1996). Reflective Teaching in Second Language Classrooms. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511667169.003
Russell, Sally S. (2006). An Overview of Adult Learning Processes. UROLOGIC Nursing: Continuing Education, 26 (5), 349-370. Retrieved 15 September, 2017 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/547417_4
Tarone, E. & Yule, G. (1989). Focus on the language learner: Approaches to identifying and meeting the needs of second language learners. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2017 Oksana Chugai, Olena Terenko, Olena Ogienko
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
ISSN 2410-8286 (Online), ISSN 2409-3351 (Print)