TEACHING PRAGMATICS IN THE EFL CLASSROOM: CHALLENGES, LACUNAS, AND SUGGESTIONS
Within the last few decades, interlanguage pragmatics research has risen to its due prominence under the influence of Hymes and the subsequent models of Communicative Competence (CC). Among different components of CC, a large number of L2 studies have attended to the construct pragmatic competence, which deals with both pragmalinguistic knowledge and sociopragmatic knowledge. As such, interlanguage pragmatics research is interested in the pragmatic competence and pragmatic performance of L2 learners; however, teaching pragmatics to Non-native Speakers (NNSs), especially EFL learners, is a thorny issue. As a result, pragmatic competence has been noticeably absent from ELT curricula, despite the fact that it has an assured place in different models of CC. The reasons for this neglect lie behind the obstacles to teaching and learning pragmatics in the ESL/EFL classroom settings. Thus, drawing on the published literature, this very paper primarily aims at discussing challenges and lacunas in teaching and learning pragmatics within the confines of EFL classrooms. Subsequent to this, the paper enlists suggestions to overcome these obstacles. To this end, the paper focuses on four broad areas: the EFL context, ELT materials and resources available to L2 learners in the EFL context, teacher education, and assessment of pragmatic knowledge.
Bardovi-Harlig, K. (2001). Evaluating the empirical evidence: Grounds for instruction in pragmatics. In K. Rose, & G. Kasper (Eds.), Pragmatics in language teaching (pp. 13-32). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9781139524797.005
Bardovi-Harlig, K., & Dörnyei, Z. (1998). Do language learners recognise pragmatic violations? Pragmatic vs. grammatical awareness in instructed L2 learning. TESOL Quarterly, 32(2), 233-262. https://doi.org/10.2307/3587583
Biesenbach-Lucas, S. (2003). Speakers and task type: Increasing awareness of factors in speech act production. In K. Bardovi-Harlig, & R. Mahan-Taylor (Eds.), Teaching pragmatics. Washington DC: Office of English Language Programmes, US Department of State.
Cai, L., & Wang, Y. (2013). Interlanguage pragmatics in SLA. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 3(1), 142-147. https://doi.org/10.4304/tpls.3.1.142-147
Cohen, A. D. (2012). Teaching pragmatics in the second language classroom. The European Journal of Applied Linguistics and TEFL, 1(1), 35-49. Retrieved April 29, 2015 from https://a/umn.edu/andrewdcohen/publications/pragmatics
Cohen, A. D. (2014). Towards increased classroom assessment of pragmatic ability. Iranian Journal of Language Testing, 4(1), 5-25. Retrieved May 7, 2014 from http://ijlt.ir/ journal/images/PDF/420-2014-4-1.pdf
Cook, H. M. (2001). Why can’t learners of JFL distinguish polite from impolite speech styles. In K. Rose, & G. Kasper (Eds.), Pragmatics in language teaching (pp. 80-102). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dufon, M.A. (2004). Producing a video for teaching pragmatics in the second or foreign language classroom. Prospect, 19(1), 65-83. Retrieved November 1, 2015 from http:// www.ameprc.mq.edu.au/resources/prospect/V19_N1_2004
Eslami-Rasekh, Z. (2005). Raising the pragmatic awareness of language learners. ELT Journal, 59(3), 199-208. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/cci039
Jianda, L. (2006). Assessing EFL learners’ interlanguage pragmatic knowledge: Implications for testers and teachers. Reflections on English Language Teaching, 5(1), 1-22. Retrieved May 7, 2014 from http://www.nus.edu.sg/ celc/publications/LiuVol5.pdf
LoCastro, V. (2012). Pragmatics for language educators: A sociolinguistic perspective. New York: Routledge.
Mirzaei, A., Roohani, A., & Esmaeili, M. (2012). Exploring pragmalinguistic and sociopragmatic variability in speech act production of L2 learners and native speakers. The Journal of Teaching Language Skills, 4(3), 79-102. Retrieved July 8, 2014 from http://jtls.shirazu.ac.ir/article_622_c00b67e043234250164d19dfda24a3f4.pdf
Morady Moghaddam, M. (2012). Discourse structures of condolence speech act. Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning, 4(10), 105-125. Retrieved May 20, 2014 from http://elt.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_609.html
Nikula, T. (2002). Teacher talk reflecting pragmatic awareness: A look at EFL and content-based classroom settings. Pragmatics, 12(4), 447-467. https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.12.4.03nik
O’Keeffe, A., Clancy, B., & Adolphs, S. (2011). Introducing pragmatics in use. London: Routledge.
Olshtain, E., & Cohen, A. (1990). The learning of complex speech act behaviour. TESL Canada Journal, 7(2), 45-65. https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v7i2.568
Olshtain, E., & Cohen, A. (1991). Teaching speech act behaviour to nonnative speakers. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (pp. 154-165). Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
Taguchi, N. (2011). Teaching pragmatics: Trends and issues. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 31, 289-310. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0267190511000018
Tajeddin, Z. (2014). Interlanguage pragmatics and language teaching. Tehran: Jungle Publications.
Thomas, J. (1983). Cross-cultural pragmatic failure. Applied Linguistics, 4(2), 91-112. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/4.2.91
Usó-Juan, E., & Martínez-Flor, A. (2008). Teaching intercultural communicative competence through the four skills. Revista Alicantina de Estudios Ingleses, 21, 157-170. https://doi.org/10.14198/raei.2008.21.09
Webb, C. (2013). Teaching pragmatics to international students in private language schools in the UK. Contemporary English Teaching and Learning in Non-English-Speaking Countries, 2(2), 27-41. Retrieved April 29, 2015 from http://www.Cetljournal.co.uk/ article/view/12171/8265
Yates, L., & Wigglesworth, G. (2005). Researching the effectiveness of professional development in pragmatics. In N. Bartels (Ed.), Applied linguistics and language teacher education (pp. 261-279). New York: Springer.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2017 Maryam Sharif, Lotfollah Yarmohammadi, Firooz Sadighi, Mohammad Sadegh Bagheri
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
ISSN 2410-8286 (Online), ISSN 2409-3351 (Print)