THE DEVELOPMENT OF MOTIVATION RESEARCH IN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY: THE TRANSITION FROM EARLY THEORIES TO SELF-RELATED APPROACHES
Motivation has been one of the earliest concepts of interest in general and educational psychology. Learning is mediated by individuals’ reasons and choices to do something or to abstain from it. The current paper is an attempt to summarise and review the development of motivation theories, models and frameworks within educational psychology. It specifically focuses on the emergence of self-related theories in motivation research. The earlier trends and theories such as expectancy-value theories, goal theories, and attribution theories are briefly described and the influential scholars who contributed to these theoretical developments are introduced. Then, the theoretical transition to self-related theories of motivation is highlighted. A general review of self-worth, self-determination and self-efficacy theories that stemmed from the concept of self is also provided.
Alloy, L. A., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1979). On the cognitive component of learned helplessness in animals and man. In G. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (pp. 219-276). New York: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0079-7421(08)60084-5
Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(3), 261-271. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-06126.96.36.1991
Atkinson, J. W. (1957). Motivational determinants of risk-taking behaviour. Psychological Review, 64(6), 359-372. http://doi.org/10.1037/h0043445
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioural change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215. http://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman. https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511527692.003
Brophy, J. (1999). Research on motivation in education: Past, present, and future. In T. C. Urdan (Ed.), The role of context: Advances in motivation and achievement, (Vol. 11, pp.1-44). Stamford, CT: JAI.
Butler, R., & Neuman, O. (1995). Effects of task and ego achievement goals on help-seeking behaviours and attitudes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87, 261-271. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-06188.8.131.521
Cantor, N., Markus, H. R., Niedenthal, P., & Nurius, P. (1986). On motivation and the self-concept. In R. M. Sorrentino & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behaviour (pp. 96-121). New York: The Guildford Press.
Covington, M. V. (1992). Making the grade: A self-worth perspective on motivation and school reform. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9781139173582
Covington, M. V. (2000). Goal theory, motivation, and school achievement: An integrative review. Annual Review of Psychology, 51(1), 171-200. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.51.1.171
Deci, E. L., & Moller, A. C. (2005). The concept of competence: A starting place for understanding intrinsic motivation and self-determined extrinsic motivation. In A. J. Elliot, & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 579-597). New York: Guilford Press.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behaviour. New York: Plenum Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-2271-7
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The ‘‘what’’ and ‘‘why’’ of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behaviour. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227-268. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327965pli1104_01
Eccles, J. S. (2007). Subjective task value and the Eccles et al. model of achievement related values. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 105-121). London: The Guilford Press.
Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 109-132. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135153
Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(3), 501-519. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2061
Elliot, A. J., & Thrash, T. M. (2001). Achievement goals and the hierarchical model of achievement motivation. Educational Psychology Review, 13(2), 139-156. https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1009057102306
Flammer, A. (1995). Developmental analysis of control beliefs. In A. Bandura (Ed.), Self-efficacy in a changing society (pp. 69-113). New York: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511527692.005
Greeno, J. G., Collins, A. M., & Resnick, L. B. (1996). Cognition and learning. In D. C. Berliner, & R. C. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of Educational Psychology (pp. 15-46). New York: Macmillan.
Hareli, S., & Weiner, B. (2002). Social emotions and personality inferences: A scaffold for a new direction in the study of achievement motivation. Educational Psychologist, 37(3), 183-193. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep3703_4
Kitsantas, A. & Zimmerman, B. (2008) College students’ homework and academic achievement: The mediating role of self-regulatory beliefs. Metacognition and Learning, 4, 97-110. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-008-9028-y
Kuhl, J. (2001). A functional approach to motivation. In A. Efklides, J. Kuhl, & R. M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Trends and prospects in motivation research (pp. 239-268). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer. https://doi.org/10.1007/0-306-47676-2_14
Kuhl, J., & Blankenship, V. (1979). Behavioural change in a constant environment: Shift to more difficult tasks with constant probability of success. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(4), 549-561. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-35220.127.116.111
Lemos, M. S. (2001). Context-bound research in the study of motivation in the classroom. In S. Volet, & S. Jarvela (Eds.), Motivation in learning contexts: Theoretical advances and methodological implications (pp. 129-147). London: Pergamon.
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey. American Psychologist, 57(9), 705-717. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.57.9.705
Maslow, A. H. (1970). Motivation and personality (2nd ed.). New York: Harper & Row.
Oyserman, D., Bybee, D., & Terry, K. (2006). Possible selves and academic outcomes: How and when possible selves impel action. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(1), 188-204. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.168
Pajares, F. & Schunk, D. (2002). Self and self-belief in psychology and education: A historical perspective. In J. Aronson (Ed.), Improving academic achievement. New York: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-012064455-1/50004-x
Park, Y. S., & Kim, U. (1999). The educational challenge of Korea in the global era: The role of family, school, and government. Education Journal, 27(1), 91-120.
Pintrich, P. R. (2000). An achievement goal theory perspective on issues in motivational terminology, theory, and research. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 92-104. https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1999.1017
Pintrich, P. R., & De Groot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 33-40. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-0622.214.171.124
Pintrich, P. & Schunk, D. (1996). Motivation in education: Theory, research & applications. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Pintrich, P. R., & Schunk, D. H. (2002). Motivation in education: Theory, research, and applications (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78. https://doi.org/10.1037//0003-066x.55.1.68
Schunk, D. H. (1996). Goal and self-evaluative influences during children’s cognitive skill learning. American Educational Research Journal, 33(2), 359-382. https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312033002359
Schunk, D. H. (2012). Learning theories: An educational perspective (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.
Schunk, D. H., & Pajares, F. (2005). Competence perceptions and academic functioning. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 85-104). New York: Guilford Press.
Seligman, M. E. P. (1975). Helplessness: On depression, development, and death. San Francisco: Freeman.
Urdan, T., & Maehr, M. L. (1995). Beyond a two-goal theory of motivation: A case for social goals. Review of Educational Research, 65(3), 213-244. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543065003213
Weiner, B. (1985). An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychological Review, 92(4), 548-573. https://doi.org/10.1037//0033-295x.92.4.548
Weiner, B. (1992). Human motivation: Metaphors, theories, and research. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications.
Wigfield, A. (1994). Expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation: A developmental perspective. Educational Psychology Review, 6(1), 49-78. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02209024
Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (1992). The development of achievement task values: A theoretical analysis. Developmental Review, 12(3), 265-310. https://doi.org/10.1016/0273-2297(92)90011-p
Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (2002). The development of competence beliefs, expectancies for success, and achievement values from childhood through adolescence. In A. Wigfield, & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Development of achievement motivation (pp. 91-120). San Diego: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-012750053-9/50006-1
Wigfield, A., & Tonks, S. (2002). Adolescents’ expectancies for success and achievement task values during the middle and high school years. In F. Pajares, & T. Urdan (Eds.), Academic motivation of adolescents (pp. 53-82). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
Wolters, C. A., Yu, S. L., & Pintrich, P. R. (1996). The relation between goal orientation and students’ motivational beliefs and self-regulated learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 8(3), 211-238. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1041-6080(96)90015-1
Woolfolk, A. E., Winne, P. H., & Perry, N. E. (2003). Educational psychology (2nd ed.). Toronto: Pearson Education.
Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 13-39). San Diego: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-012109890-2/50031-7
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2017 Saeed Safdari, Parviz Maftoon
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
ISSN 2410-8286 (Online), ISSN 2409-3351 (Print)