THE SUCCESSFUL INCORPORATION OF BLENDED LEARNING INTO THE LANGUAGE CURRICULUM
A phenomenon attracting increasing attention in language curricula is the infusion of technology into traditional, face-to-face (FTF) language instruction. Nevertheless, computer-assisted language learning (CALL) still lacks a body of qualitative research on the notion of blended learning (BL). Particularly, what is lacking is information regarding teachers' perceptions of blended learning, or the roles they are expected to play in such mixed environments; without an understanding of these issues, the creation of new and effective BL curricula is extremely difficult (Grgurovic,2010). That said, much research has been conducted comparing learning outcomes in traditional and blended foreign language classes, although the various socio-cultural (external) and psychological (internal) aspects governing the successful transition of both teachers and learners from FTF to online learning remain unexamined (White,2006). This literature review consequently focuses on the infusion of technology into the language curriculum, specifically in relation to BL, with three purposes in mind: to a) exemplify teacher perspectives on BL; b) their effective transition from FTF to technologically-enhanced instruction; and c) examine those factors which are identified as the reasons for teachers having effectively implemented the technological components into a blended curriculum.
Arbaugh, J. B. (2004). Learning to learn online: a study of perceptual changes between multiple online course experiences. Internet and Higher Education, 7(3), 169–182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2004.06.001
Bach, S., Haynes, P., & Smith, J. L. (2006). Online learning and teaching in higher education. Buckingham, UK: Open
Banados, E. (2006). A blended-learning pedagogical model for teaching and learning EFL successfully through an online interactive multimedia environment. CALICO Journal, 23(3), 533-550.
Berk, R. A. (2010). How do you leverage the latest technologies, including Web 2.0 tools, in your classroom? International Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning, 6 (1), 1-13.
Bijeikienė, V., Rašinskienė, S., & Zutkienė, L. (2011). Teachers' attitudes towards the use of blended learning in general English classroom. Studies about Languages, 18, 122-127.
Blake, R. J. (2008). Brave new digital classroom: Technology and foreign language learning. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
Borg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research in what language teachers think, know, believe, and do. Language Teaching, 36, 81-109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0261444803001903
Comas-Quinn, A. (2011). Learning to teach online or learning to become an online teacher: An exploration of teachers' experiences in a blended learning course. ReCALL, 23(3), 218-232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0958344011000152.
Compton, L. (2009). Preparing language teachers to teach language online: A look at skills, roles, and responsibilities. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 22(1),73-99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09588220802613831.
Darling-Hammond, L., & Bransford, J. (2005). Preparing teachers for a changing world: What teachers should learn and be able to do. San Fransisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Education Series.
Demetriadis, S., Barbas, A., Molohides, A., Palaigeorgiou, G., Psillos, D., Vlahavas, I., & A. Pombortsis, A. (2003). Cultures in negotiation: Teachers' acceptance/resistance attitudes considering the infusion of technology into schools. Computers and Education, 41, 19-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0360-1315(03)00012-5
Desai, M. S. H., Jeff, R., & Thomas C. (2008). E-learning: Paradigm shift in education. Education, 129(2), 327-334.
Ertmer, P., Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A., Sadık, O., Sendurur, E., & Şendurur, P. (2012). Teacher beliefs and technology integration practices: A critical relationship. Computers & Education, 59, 423-435. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.02.001
Eseryel, D. (2002). A Framework for Evaluation and Selection of E-Learning Solutions. In M. Driscoll & T. Reeves (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2002 (pp. 275-282). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
Finley, L., & Hartman, D. (2004). Institutional change and resistance: A teacher preparatory faculty and technology integration. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 12(3), 319-327.
Fullan, M. (Ed.). (1997). The challenge of school change: A collection of articles. New York: Hawker Brownlow.
Garrison, D.R., & Kanuka, H. (2004). Blended learning: Uncovering its transformative potential in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education.7(2), 95-105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2004.02.001
Gomez, K. L., Sherin M. G., Griesdorn, J., & Finn, L. (2008). Creating social relationships: The role of technology in preservice teacher preparation, Journal of Teacher Education, 59(2), 117-131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022487107314001.
Gribbins, M. L., Hadidi, R., Urbaczewski, A., & Vician, C. (2007). Technology enhanced learning in blended learning environments: A report on standard practices. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 2007(20), 741-759.
Grguroviė, M. (2010). Technology-enhanced blended language learning in an ESL class: A description of a model and an application of the diffusion of Innovations theory. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Iowa State University.
Grguroviė, M. (2011). Blended learning in an ESL Class: A case study. CALICO Journal, 29 (1), 100-117. http://dx.doi.org/10.11139/cj.29.1.100-117
Hampel, R., & Stickler, U. (2005). New skills for new classrooms: Training tutors to teach languages online. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 18(4), 311-326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09588220500335455
Hong, K., & Samimy, K., (2010). The influence of L2 teachers' use of CALL modes on language learners' reactions to blended learning. CALICO Journal, 27(2), 328-348. http://dx.doi.org/10.11139/cj.27.2.328-348
Hughes, J. (2005). The role of teacher knowledge and learning experience in forming technology- integrated pedagogy. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 13(2), 277-289.
Jonassen, D. H., Howland, J., Moore, J., & Marra, R. M. (2003). Learning to solve problems with technology: A constructivist perspective (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.
Kelly, A. V. (2009). The curriculum: Theory and practice (6th ed.). London: SAGE.
Larsen, L. (2012). Teacher and student perspectives on a blended learning intensive English program writing course. Graduate Theses and Dissertations. Paper 12375
Laurillard, D. (2002). Rethinking University Teaching. A conversational framework for the effective use of learning technologies (2nd ed.). London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9781315012940
Lamie, J. (2005). Evaluating change in English language teaching. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230598638.
Lim, D., Morris, M., & Kupritz, V. (2007). Online vs. blended learning: Differences in instructional outcomes and learner satisfaction. Retrieved September, 2012 from: http://sloanconsortium.org/ jaln/v11n2/online-vs-blended-learning-differences-instructional-outcomes-and-learner-satisfaction
Lo Bianco, J. (2010). Language policy and planning. In N.H. Hornberger & S.L. McKay (Eds.), Sociolinguistics and language education (pp. 143-174). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
MacDonald, J. (2008). Blended learning and online tutoring: A good practice guide. Aldershot, UK: Gower.
McGrail, E. (2005). Teachers, technology and change: English teachers' perspectives. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 13(1), 5-14.
Means, B.(2008). Technology's role in curriculum and instruction. In F. M. Connelly, M. F. He, & J. Phillion (Eds.),
The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction (pp. 123-145). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412976572.n7
Mortera-Gutierrez, F. (2006). Faculty best practices using blended learning in e-learning and face-to- face instruction. International Journal on E-learning, 5(3), 313-337.
Motteram, G. (2006). Blended education and the transformation of teachers: a long-term case study in postgraduate UK education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 37(1), 17-30.
Murday, K., Ushida, E., & Chenoweth, N. A. (2006). Learner learning in hybrid French and Spanish courses: An overview of language online. CALICO, 24(1), 115-145.
Murday, K., Ushida, E., & Chenoweth, N. A. (2008). Learners' and teachers' perspectives on language online. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 21(2), 125-142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09588220801943718
Neumeier, P. (2005). A closer look at blended learning: Parameters for designing a blended learning environment for language teaching and learning. ReCALL 17(2), 163-178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0958344005000224
Osguthorpe, R.T., & Graham, C.R. (2003). Blended learning environment: Definitions and directions. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 4(3), 227-233.
Picciano, A. (2009). Blending with purpose: The multimodal model. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks,
Sharma, P. (2010). Blended learning. ELT Journal, 64(4), 456-458. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccq043
Sharma, P., & Barret, B. (2007). Blended learning: Using technology in a beyond the language classroom. Thailand: Macmillan Publishers Limited.
Shelly, M., White, C., Baumann, U., & Murphy, L. (2006). 'It's a unique role!' Perspectives on tutor attributes and expertise in distance language teaching. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 3(2), 1-14.
Sugar, W., Crawley, F., & Fine, B. (2004). Examining teachers' decisions to adopt new technology. Educational Technology and Society, 7(4), 201-213.
Ricento, T., & Hornberger. N. (1996). Unpeeling the onion: Language planning and policy and the ELT professional. TESOL Quarterly, 30(3), 401-427. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3587691
Tayebinik,M., & Puteh, M. (2012). Blended learning or e-learning? IMACST, 3(1), 103-110.
Tomlinson, B. (2005). English as a foreign language: Matching procedures to the contexts of learning. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp.137-154). Mahwah, NJ: Lawence
Westbrook, K. (2008). The beginning of the end for blended learning? IATEFL CALL Review. Summer 2008: 12-15.
White, C. (2006). Distance learning of foreign languages. Language Teaching, 39, 247-264. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0261444806003727
Copyright (c) 2016 Adam J. Simpson
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
ISSN 2410-8286 (Online), ISSN 2409-3351 (Print)